Individual 401(k) Plan with Traditional and Roth 401(k) contributions
Retirement investing for the self-employed
- For self-employed workers and their spouses to maximize retirement savings
- Generous contribution limits and simple administration
- Tax-deferred growth potential
- Choose to make traditional 401(k) contributions, Roth 401(k) contributions, or both
- Use the Small Business Selector to find a plan
(under age 50)
Maximum total contributions up to $66,000 in 2023 annual contributions, or 100% of compensation, whichever is less, with compensation taken into account capped at $330,000 in 2023
(age 50 or over)
Maximum total contributions up to $73,500 in 2023 annual contributions, or 100% of compensation, whichever is less, with compensation taken into account capped at $330,000 in 2023
Why Individual & Roth Individual 401(k) Plans?
Available for self-employed individuals with no additional employees other than a spouse, deadline to establish account is December 31
Ability to borrow against retirement assets
Loans are available from an Individual or Roth Individual 401(k) account
Minimal administrative requirements
IRS Form 5500 filing is generally not required until the account value reaches $250,000
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What types of contributions are allowed in an Individual 401(k) and how are they allocated?
- Individual 401(k) allows for both, salary deferral and profit sharing contributions
- Salary deferrals can be split between the pre-tax Individual 401(k) account and the after-tax Roth Individual 401(k) account
- Discretionary profit sharing contributions must be made to the pre-tax Individual 401(k) account
Can a person who is employed by an employer and also has an unrelated self-employed business set up an individual 401(k) plan, and also contribute to the unrelated employer’s 401(k) plan?
Yes. However, total annual employee contributions cannot exceed the 401(k) contribution limits ($20,500 in 2022 or $27,000 of age 50 or older in 2022). Other restrictions and rules may apply in this situation; consult your tax and legal advisor.
What happens if a business owner hires employees?
If employees are hired, generally, they would have to be included in the plan, which will add more complex plan administration rules, expenses, and may cause the need to terminate the Individual 401(k) plan. A business owner may want to consider other retirement plans if planning on hiring employees in the future. Consider using the Small Business Plan Selector Tool to see other options.
Can an Individual 401(k) be opened if a partnership consists of only self-employed partners?
Yes. Generally, each self-employed partner will be able to open a separate Individual 401(k) plan.
Does IRS Form 5500 need to be filed for an Individual 401(k)?
Business owners are generally exempt from filing IRS Form 5500 if the Individual 401(k) plan has less than $250,000 in assets at the end of the year. Plans with $250,000 or more in assets at the end of the year are generally required to file Form 5500.
Explore similar accounts
For the self-employed and small businesses
Flexible annual contributions from 0% to 25% of earned income.
For businesses with fewer than 100 employees
Easy, inexpensive retirement plan with deductible employer and employee contributions.